Copyright Material
Robert Cole 2015
AIKUCHI          Guardless mounted TANTO or dagger. Long sword, rarely.
AKAGANE          Copper. 
AMATERASU        The Divine Goddess of the Sun. Root of SHINTO religion. 
                 See MURAKUMO-no-TSURUGI in YAMATO.
AMIDA-YASURI     Radical file-marks on Tsuba.
ARAME-NIE        ARA-NIE groups into a meshing, or NIE lacing.
ARA-NIE          "Coarse NIE." Large NIE. Can be splotchy like.
ASAKI-NOTARE     Slight or shallow NOTARE waves.
ASHI             "Legs" or "feet." NEZUMI-ASHI is "rat's  feet." Describes 
                 NIOI that falls from the line or from valleys, toward 
                 the edge. Notches in the line.
ASHINAGA         Long ASHI. Very long "legs."
ATSUSHI          "Thick." Thick NIE. Thick NIOI.
AYASUGI          "Flowing Cedar." Large  undulating wave grain pattern.
                 Often pronounced and decorative.
BAKUFU           Government offices or operations. The army.
BAKUMATSU        Late Edo period.
BITSU            Also as HITSU, as in HITSU-ANA. See HITSU.
BO-HI            Large or wide groove.
BOKKEN           Wooden sword, often used to practice sword form.
BONJI            Sanskrit carvings - spiritual evocation. 
BOSHI            "Hat." Temper line in KISSAKI. Also, portion of temper 
                 line in KISSAKI closest to the point.
BOSHIGATA        An interruption of the temper line in the BOSHI.
BUKE             The family of the BUSHI. References a man or men of the
                 military. Fighting men.
BUSHI            Warrior.
BUSHU            Musashi Province.
BUSHIDO          The Way of the Warrior.
CAO              Monogram trademark added to a signature. Also called KAO.
CHIJI-MEN        Skein-like or bunched, fine thread. A unique HADA pattern
                 found in BITCHU AOE. 
CHIKEI           This term describes dark lines that appear in the JI. 
                 CHIKEI can result from an abundance of bound carbon. 
CHOJI BA         "Clove Blossom" temper pattern.
CHOJI-ABURA      CHOJI Oil. Oil for the care of swords.
CHOJI-MIDARE     Uneven or mixed CHOJI temper line.
CHOSHU           Nagato Province.
CHOKUTO          Prehistoric straight sword.
CHU              Middle or medium. Half, halfway.
CHU-HANDACHI     Medium sized TACHI.
CHU-JO           CHU-JO SAKU. See JAPANESE VALUE SYSTEM.
CHU-KISSAKI      Medium sized KISSAKI or point area. 
CHUMON-UCHI      "Ordered" - Special-order sword. (See KAZUCHI)
CHU-SAKU         See JAPANESE VALUE SYSTEM.
CHU-SUGUHA       Straight temper line of medium width.
DAIBO-CHOJI      High rising CHOJI-MIDARE, also called OBUSA.
DAIJIRI          Style of BOSHI turnback with large butting end.
DAI-MEI          Large signature. Also a student has honor in signing his
                 teacher's name.
DAIMYO           Feudal lord.
DAISAKU          Signed by the top student.
DAI-SHO          "Long and Short." Long sword and short sword, either 
                 blades or fittings or both. NOTE: Pieces originally 
                 produced as matched sets inflate "name" trading value 
                 by 100%. 
DAITO            "Long Sword" (Goes with SHOTO for DAI-SHO).
DANNOURA         The last battle of the Taira.
DENAORI          Retemper. Usually SAIHA or YAKINAOSHI.
DOTTE-MIMI       Metal band around the rim of Tsuba.
EBISU            Aboriginal "Barbarians" - the AINU.
EDO              TOKUGAWA Capital and former name of the present Tokyo.
FUCHI            Fitting on a sword handle that rests against the guard.
                 Normally paired with the KASHIRA.
FUCHI-KASHIRA    The FUCHI and KASHIRA as a pair. A boxed set.
FUKAi (FUKASHI)  Also known by the older and rarely used FUKASHI. "Deep."
                 Deep NIOI or deep NIE. A widening of the HABUCHI. Deep 
                 areas of YAKIBA that exhibit the appearance of 
                 "splashing" can be FUKAi or FUKASHI. 
                 Deep turnback: KAERI-FUKAi. FUKASHI or FUKAi bespeaks 
                 of coordinated dynamics in specific figures. Also used 
                 to describe the state of SORI.
FUKURA           The curve of the HA or edge in the KISSAKI.
FUKURE           Flaws.
FUKURO-YARI      Tangless Yari that fits outside the shaft.
FUMBARI          Same as FUNBARI. 
FUNAGATA         Ship bottom shape to a NAKAGO or sword tang.
FUNBARI          SUMO wrestler's "A" shaped stance is likened to a 
                 widening at the base, one foot on the HA-MACHI and 
                 one foot on the MUNE-MACHI, found or emulated of 
                 HEIAN TACHI SUGATA, very old sword style. Any 
                 noticeable tapering in blade width from the MACHIs 
                 to KISSAKI is often mistakenly called FUNBARI for
                 short. Overt widening at the HABAKI-MOTO
FURISODE         The shape of a NAKAGO or sword tang that resembles the
                 sleeve of a KIMONO.
FUSHI            Portions of a temperline that appear like the knots of a
                 wooden board or tree. This term has been applied to the
                 GUNOME form that appears much like individual SAKA-CHOJI,
                 perhaps evenly spaced from one another, with each nodule
                 having little NIOI YO marks within.
GAKU-MEI         "Signature in a frame." An original signature inlaid in 
                 an O-SURIAGE (greatly shortened) tang.
GENDAITO         Blades of modern smiths. Traditionally forged.
GEMPEI           The time of the Minamoto and Taira.
GIN no HA        Long GINSUJI along the HAMON. 
GINSUJI          "Silver Line."
GIMEI            "False Signature." 
GOBAN KAJI       "Swordsmiths to the Emperor." 
GOKADEN          "The Five Schools" of the KOTO period.
GOMAE KITAE      Five laminate blade structure.
GOMABASHI        Parallel grooves depicting chopsticks or HASHI.
GOMEIKEN         "Five Great Swords" 
                        - MIKAZUKI      by MUNECHIKA
                        - ONIMARU       by KUNITSUNA
                        - DOJIKIRI      by YASUTSUNA
                        - JUZUMARU      by TSUNETSUGU
                        - ODENTA        by MITSUYO
GUCHI or KUCHI   Opening. The mouth of the scabbard or handle.
GUNOME           Partially round-shaped temper line patterns.
GUNOME-MIDARE    Unevenly spaced or sized round-shaped HAMON.
GUNTO            "Army Sword."
GYAKU            Reversed or inverted. Term used to describe unique HAMON
                 patterns.
GYO no MUNE      Common or FUTSU-MUNE. IHORI-MUNE.
HA               Sword edge. Cutting edge.
HA-AGARI         JIRI of a NAKAGO. Like KURIJIRI but raised up higher on 
                 the edge side. "Raised edges"
HABA             Width.
HABAKI           Multi-purpose collet resting against the MACHIs that 
                 allows an abutment for the SEPPA and TSUBA. It also 
                 holds the sword blade securely in the scabbard (or SAYA).
HABAKI-MOTO      Area of blade nearest the MACHIs (notches).
HABUCHI          The line of HAMON.
HACHO            Blade length.
HADA             Grain lines. Folded steel. Folding pattern.
HAGI no TSUYU    "Bushes of Dew." Abundant and brilliant NIE.
HAGIRE           Flaws in the HA. Edge cracks.
HAITO            Personal sword. "Wearing sword."
HAKIKAKE         "Broom swept" portions in the HAMON.
HAKO BA          Box shaped HAMON.
HAKO-GAKI        Appraisal Kanji on Tsuba Box.
HAKO-MIDARE      Uneven shaped or sized "Box" HAMON pattern.
HAKO-MUNE        Square shaped backridge.
HA-MACHI         The notch at the beginning of the HA or cutting edge.
HAMAGURI         "Edge like a Clam." Thick along the HA. Having JI-NIKU 
                 or "meat" near the HA. 

HAMIDASHI        TANTO or dagger with a small guard.
HAMIDASHI        Pointed HAMON patterns.
HAMITSU KADO     Also MITSU-GASHIRA. Point that joins KO-SHINOGI, SHINOGI 
                 and YOKOTE.
HAMON            The line of the temper pattern. Signature of the HA.
HANABISHI        Petal of flower. Single petal.
HANDACHI         Mountings resembling that of a TACHI but for dressing a
                 KATANA.
HANTACHI         Half TACHI mounts, same as HANDACHI.
HARAKIRI         "To cut" is the meaning of KIRI. HARA is the lower 
                 abdomen and is thought of as being "The Seat of the 
                 Soul." HARAKIRI means to cut open the HARA and release 
                 the soul. Also known as SEPPUKU (translit: "Resolve")
HASHI            Chopsticks. HASHI carvings called GOMABASHI.
HA-SAKI          Edge of the blade.
HATSUYA/HAZUYA   Paper-thin finger stones used to bring out the YAKIBA 
                 and HAMON.
HAZURE           HAMON like the edge of a forest.
HEIKE            Taira family.
HESO             Pin for Nakago-ana.
HI               Grooves in the body of a sword.
HIGAKI           Lattice pattern file marks.
HIRA             Plane. Flat surface.
HIRA-MUNE        Flat backridge.
HIRA-DZUKURI     Sword without SHINOGI ridges.
HIRA-NIKU        Convexity of surface.
HIRA-TSUKURI     A blade without a SHINOGI line.
HIRO-SUGUHA      Wide straight temper line.
HITATSURA        "Full temper." SO-SHU HAMON.
HITSU            KODZUKA handle, or short for HITSU-ANA. BITSU.
HITSU-ANA        Sword guard holes that are placed so as to allow the 
                 removal of a KODZUKA or utility knife.
HIZOKO-MIMI      Bucket-rim shaped Tsuba rim. Taka-Dotte mimi.
HO               Dagger or sword's point. Blade in KODZUKA.
HOCHO            Kitchen knife. Also a famous MASAMUNE piece.
HOKO             Halbert, spearhead.
HO-MYO           Posthumous Buddhist title. Spirit name.
HOKO             Early tangless spear that fit over the spewar shaft.
HONAMI           Famous appraisal family.
HONAMI-MEI       An affixial on the NAKAGO by the HONAMI attesting origin.
                 Gold inlay attribution with lacquer appraisers signature.
HONAMI TOGI      A particular style of handling the sword blade for every
                 stone in the polishing process
HONO-TO          "Devoted to or toward the Shrine" Gift to Shrine.
HONSANMAI        Three piece laminate sword construction.
HORIMONO         Carvings on sword blades.
HOSHI            Stars. Can be bright NIE or little star-like groups of NIE.
HOSHI YUBASHIRI  Star-shaped YUBASHIRI.
HOSO SUGUHA      Thin straight temper line.
HOTSURE          Strays from HAMON, into the JI or toward the HA.
HYAKKA RYORAN    A "Gathering of Many Flowers." 
HYOTAN           "Bottle Gourd" temper line.
IBUSE            Large round shape in certain BOSHI.
ICHI             "One." "First." May refer to ICHIMONJI.
ICHIMAI          One-piece sword construction.
ICHIMAI BOSHI    Point area that is completely hardened.
ICHIMONJI        Designation of the sword school associated with the 
                 technical efforts of EMPEROR GOTOBA.
ICHIMONJI BOSHI  BOSHI falls perpendicularly to the MUNE.
IHORI-MUNE       "Roof-ridge" or single ridge MUNE.
IKUBI            "Boar's Neck." Short but wide KISSAKI.
INAZUMA          "Flashes of Lightning." Like KINSUJI but arcing in JI 
                 from the YAKIBA. Also, "Violet Lightning."
ITAME            "Wood-like." Grain pattern of wood.
ITO SUGU         Thread-like HAMON.
JI               Sword-body surface plane between the SHINOGI and the HA.
JI-BA            A short-cut term in Japanese texts to refer to any 
                 consideration or comparison of or concerning the JI and 
                 HA or YAKIBA.
JI-DAI           A reference of time. The time of a generation, or a
                 particualar generation. The historical body of a school 
                 or of the teachings of its individuals. That group 
                 associated by school or lineage. 
JIGAI            Suicide by cutting the throat.
JI-GANE          Surface steel.
JI-HADA          Surface pattern and texture. 
JINDACHI         Same as TACHI. Old TACHI style mounting.
JI-NIE           Bound carbon holds heat  at quenching and is left as NIE. 
                 When the folding method of an individual smith permits, 
                 NIE can be left in the JI area (outside the YAKIBA).
JITSUYA          Paper-thin finger stones used to bring out the JI 
                 (JI-HADA or grain)
JIZO BOSHI       "Priest's Head." Head shaped BOSHI.
JO-JO            JO-JO SAKU. See JAPANESE VALUE SYSTEM. 
JOKOTO           Non-curved sword, straight sword. Old straight swords.
JORIN            Ring-shaped grain. JORIN MOKUME.
JO-SAKU          See JAPANESE VALUE SYSTEM.
JUMONJI YARI     "Crossed Arms" spear or ten plane scythe.
JUZU             "Priest's Beads" temper line.
KABUTO           Helmet.
KAEN             "Flame." Term refers to HAMON and BOSHI pattern.
KAERI            Technical part of BOSHI: Turnback of temper line in the
                 KISSAKI toward or down the MUNE. 
KAJI             Smith. Swordsmith.
KAKIHAN          Artist's or craftsman's monogram or CAO.
KAKI-TOSHI       Groove runs into the NAKAGO.
KAKU-DOME        Square termination to a groove.
KAKU-DOTTE MIMI  Square-shaped Tsuba rim.
KAKU-MUNE        Square back ridge.
KA-MON           Family Crest
KANJI            Written characters.
KAMASU           Edge without curvature.
KAM-MIMI         Full-shaped tsuba rim.
KANMURI-OTOSHI   Backridge beveled like a NAGINATA.
KANTEI           Sword appraisal.
KAO              See CAO.
KASAGI           Same as TORIIZORI.
KASANE           Thickness of blade.
KASHIRA          Sword pommel. End of sword handle. Usually paired with
                 FUCHI. FUCHI-GASHIRA.
KATA-JIRI        The single plane that extends along the edge of a groove 
                 on the SHINOGI-JI. RYO-JIRI (two) refers to the flat plane 
                 on either side of a groove running down the SHINOGI-JI.
KATAKIRI         Sword style with one side being HIRA. Usually parallel
                 planes with a bevel. Like a wood-plane.
KATANA           Sword worn in the sash, cutting edge up.
KATANA KAKE      Sword stand.
KATANA-MEI       Sword with signature on the side of the NAKAGO that faces
                 out when worn cutting-edge up.
KATATE-UCHI      Katate-uchi means "One-handed Fighting sword." A style 
                 specific to the Sengoku. Shinogi-Tsukuri swords, 21 1/2" 
                 to 25 1/2" Nagasa, made between the Bunmei 1469 and the 
                 Ten-Mon periods are Katate-uchi long swords.
KATCHUSHI        Amorer or armorer-made Tsuba. Tsuba school.
KAWAGANE         Skin or surface steel. As opposed to SHINGANE or heart
                 steel. 
KAZUCHI          "Manufactured" - Swords produced by mass-production.
KEBORI           Finely engraved lines.
KEN              Straight sword. Can be a style of HORIMONO.
KENDO            Name of a sword discipline that has evolved into a sport 
                 in modern Japan using SHINAI.
KENGYO           Triangular or pointed NAKAGO JIRI.
KESHO            Cosmetic or decorative style option of polish.
KESHO YASURIME   Decorative file marks on NAKAGO.
KIJIMATA         "Pheasant Thigh." A style of NAKAGO.
KIJIMOMO         Pheasant leg NAKAGO.
KIKUBA           Chrysanthemum temperline pattern.
KIKU GYOSAKU     Swords signed by Emperor GOTOBA  with 16 and 24 petal 
                 chrysanthemum. 17 petal on OKI island.
KIKU ICHIMONJI   Inscriptions of the ICHIMONJI school.
KINKO            Gold smith or Gold enhanced soft-metal fittings and their makers.
KIN-MEI          Gold inlay or gold lacquer appraiser's inscription.
KINSUJI          "Golden Line." Lines of hardened-steel differentiated in 
                 the YAKIBA.
KINZOGAN-MEI     Attribution in gold inlay on NAKAGO.
KIRIHA           Flat surface sword (parallel planes) having both sides
                 beveled to the edge.
KIRI             Paulownia. Kirimon crest.
KIRI KOMI        Nick acquired from a parried blow.
KIRI NAKAGO      JIRI is straight (often SURIAGE).
KIRI-TSUKURI     "Cut Edge." Old style, usually straight, curveless blade 
                 and point with one side beveled to the cutting edge. 
                 KATAKIRI.
KISSAKI          Point section. Plane bounded by the KO-SHINOGI, YOKOTE 
                 and FUKURA.
KITAE            Forged, or forging.
KIZU             Flaws.
KOBAN            Gold coins.
KOBUSE           Sword construction where soft core-steel is wrapped in 
                 a blanket of hard.
KO-CHOJI         Small CHOJI temper pattern.
KODACHI          Small TACHI.
KODOGU           Term for sword fittings other than TSUBA. Any antique item. 
KOGAI            Personal grooming utensil often paired with KODZUKA.
KOGARASU         Blade having RYOBA double-edge (cutting edge on backridge)
                 in the MONOUCHI section. 
KOGARASU-MARU    One of three extant National Treasure swords. Originally
                 thought to have been awarded as symbols of Imperial 
                 directive, confiring martial power. Emblems of Imperial
                 representation, or for national recognition.
KOI-GUCHI        The mouth of the scabbard or its fitting.
KOJIRI           The end of the scabbard or the piece at the end.
KO-KIASSKI       Smal point.
KOKISSAKI NOBIRU Slightly elongated small point.
KOKU             Rice bale. A value-unit of wealth.
KOKUHO           National Treasure.
KO-MARU          Small round BOSHI.
KO-MASA          Small straight.
KO-MASAME        Small or tight straight grain.
KO-MEI           Small sized inscription.
KO-MEI           Refers to an old signature that once existed on an 
                 O-SURIAGE, or completely cut down NAKAGO.
KOMI             "Completion." Referenced to the end of a tang.
KO-MIDARE        Small uneven characteristics in the HAMON.
KO-MOKU          Small burl.
KO-MOKUME        Small or tightly knit burl grain.
KO-NIE           Small or fine NIE (differentiated crystalline steel).
KO-NIE DEKI      Dressed or made up of - KO-NIE.
KO-NUKA          Small or fine texture "Rice Bran" grain. Associated with
                 HIZEN-TO.
KO-SEKI          Old SEKI.
KOSHIBA          Style of HAMON where a large figure to the pattern appears
                 in the YAKIBA near the NAKAGO.
KOSHI-HI         Grooves carved in the lower (nearest NAKAGO).
KO-SHINOGI       The SHINOGI ridgeline attendant to the KISSAKI.
KO-SHINOGI SAKI  The point where the KO-SHINOGI ridgeline meets the
                 backridge.
KOSHIRAE         Sword mountings. Sword fittings.
KOSHIZORI        Curve arc greatest near NAKAGO. BIZEN-ZORI.
KOZORI           Sword making school - BIZEN.
KOTETSU          Perhaps the most famous SHINTO swordsmith.
KOTO             "Old Sword." Era to KEI-CHO 1596.
KO-WAKIZASHI     Small or short WAKIZASHI (companion sword).
KOZUKA           Handle of small knife in sword scabbards.
KOZUKA-HITSU     Hole in Tsuba to pass through a Kozuka.
KUICHIGAI        "Contrary."  Appearance of HAMON line like that of 
                 disintegrating embers. Usually small complex figures seen 
                 as though fighting or collapsing in upon themselves.
KUMO             Grain appearing like cloud swirls.
KUNI             Province or country. Also pronounced, "KOKU"
KURIJIRI         Rounded or "Chestnut" shaped tang end.
KURIKARA         Dragon HORIMONO.
KURIKATA         "Chestnut Shaped." SAGE-O or cord fixture found on the
                 scabbard or SAYA.
KURO             "Black." - Or dark. Used for steel color.
KUZURE           Crumbling. Disintegrating. Term for HAMON descriptions.
KYO-DEN          KYOTO School (SHINTO).
KYO GOKAJI       "The Five Smiths." (SHINTO KYOTO)
                        - HISAMICHI
                        - KINMICHI
                        - KINMICHI
                        - MASATOSHI
                        - YOSHIMICHI
KYO-ZORI         Even curve - TORIIZORI. KYOTO style curve.
MACHI            Notches in the HA and MUNE that act as a stop for the 
                 HABAKI called HA-MACHI and MUNE-MACHI. Separation 
                 between blade and tang. Also called SEKI.
MACHI-OKURI      Length reduction where the notches are moved up. This 
                 reduces trading value against an UBU piece.
MADO-AKE         "Open a Window." The polishing of one section of the JI. 
                 Can be bounded with TOGI-MEI.
MAGE-SAKI        "Change the point." Blurred MONOUCHI seen in SAIHA.
MARU             Round. Often used to describe BOSHI.
MARU-DOME        Round groove termination.
MARU-DOTTE MIMI  Round-shaped tsuba rim.
MARU-MUNE        Round backridge, either blade or tang.
MASA             Straight. 
MASAME           "Straight-like." Used to denote straight grain.
MASAMUNE         Reputed to be the greatest swordsmith.
MATSUKAWA        Pine-bark HADA.
MEI              A signature.
MEIBUTSU         "Especially Notable." A distinguished award.
MEIJI            MEI-JI 1868. Emperor MEIJI.
MEKUGI           Sword peg.
MEKUGI-ANA       Hole for sword peg.
MEMPO            Armor face mask.
MENUKI           Stylized ornaments found in the handle wrapping.
MI               Sword blade. Blade section, not tang.
MIDARE           Uneven. Uneven or irregular HAMON pattern.
MIDARE-KOMI      Uneven pattern in BOSHI area or turnback.
MI-HABA          Width of sword blade.
MIMI             Rim. Tsuba rim.
MIMIGATA         "Ear Shaped."  Description of temper pattern.
MITOKORO         "Three Place." Term for KODZUKA, KOGAI, MENUKI.
MITSU KADO       Convergence of YOKOTE, SHINOGI, and KO-SHINOGI.
MITSU-GASHIRA    Point of convergence of YOKOTE, SHINOGI and KO-SHINOGI.
MITSU-MUNE       Three-sided backridge.
MITSUZURE        "In threes."
MIZUKAGE         Mark from retempering.
MOKKO            Four sided, flower-like Tsuba shape.
MOKU             Burl.
MOKUME           "Burl-like."  Burl grain.
MOKU SHURAI      The Invasion of the Mongols.
MOMOYAMA         Site of HIDEYOSHI's castle, from which the era was named.
                 The period prior to the TOKUGAWA.
MON              Family crest.
MONOKIRI         "The Part for Cutting." Cutting edge.
MONOUCHI         "The Part for Stroking." The first six inches including 
                 the KISSAKI.
MOROHA           Double-edged sword. 
MOTO             "Source" or beginning.
MOTO-HABA        Width near HABAKI.
MOTO-KASANE      "Beginning Thickness." Blade thickness.
MU               Nothing.
MU-JI            No grain. Little or no grain.
MU-MEI           No signature.
MUNE             Back. Backridge.
MUNE-GANE        Lamination piece of the backridge.
MUNE-MACHI       Notch resolving backridge.
MUNE-SUJI        Backridge line.
MUNEYAKI         Temper pattern seen on backridge.
MURA             "Village."
MURA-NIE         Profuse NIE. Mounded, piled "leaves of a bush."
MURASAKI         Deep black, blue-black or purple-black Shakudo.
MUSO             No mounts.
MU-SORI          No curvature.
NAGAMAKI         Halberd-like weapon having no YOKOTE and often used as 
                 a sword.
NAGASA           "Length" of cutting-edge section from tip to Ha-Machi.
NAGINATA         Halberd.
NAGINATA-NAOSHI  Shortened Naginata to waer as a sword.
NAKAGO           A tang.
NAKAGO-ANA       Hole in Tsuba for sword.
NAKAGO-JIRI      End of Tang, Shape of tang tip.
NAKA-ZORI        Same as Torii-zori - even curve.
NAMBAN TETSU     Foreign iron.
NAMBOKU          North and South.
NAMBOKUCHO       North and South Courts. YOSHINO Period. 
NANAKO           Raised dimpling (created by a punch) found as decorative
                 background on soft-metal fittings. 
NENGO            Japanese era or time-period names. Year names.
NEZUMI-ASHI      "Rat's Feet." A particular pattern in YAKIBA.
NIE              Differentiated crystallized steel in the HAMON or 
                 elsewhere. Can appear sphere-like. NIE can be color-
                 rich crystalline nodules in the better work or appear 
                 as pebbles, granulated or even splotchy and patch-
                 like particles in the lesser.
NIE-DEKI         Outfitted or dressed in NIE.
NIJUBA           "Two-fold HA."  Double HAMON. Only called such, if 
                 purposefully created.
NIKU             "Meat." The degree of convexity in the JI or KISSAKI 
                 planes. Healthy skin-steel. Strength.
NIKU-OKI         Thickness toward the rim of a Tsuba.
NIOI             "Scent." Vapor or cloud-like constituent of the HAMON.
NIOI-DEKI        Made up of NIOI.
NISE             Imitation.

NOKO             "Teeth of a Saw" temper pattern.
NOSHI            No turnback.
NOTARE           Waves pattern in the temper line.
NOTARE-MIDARE    Uneven waves in temper line.
NUNOME           Overlay metal-work. Metals affixed in cross-hatching. 
OBUSA            Rising or extended GUNOME or CHOJI patterns. Same as 
                 DAIBO CHOJI.
O-CHOJI          Large CHOJI temper pattern.
O-DACHI          Extra long sword. 
O-GUNOME         Large GUNOME temper pattern.
O-KATANA         Large KATANA.
O-KISSAKI        Long or large KISSAKI. Origintes from the Nambokucho.
O-MIDARE         Large uneven or irregular shapes of the HAMON pattern.
OMI-YARI         Very long Yari blade.
OMOTE            Signature side of the NAKAGO.
O-NIE            Large NIE.
O-NOTARE         Large wave patterns in HAMON.
ORIGAMI          "Paper." Certificate of Appraisal. 
ORIGANE          Spiring KINSUJI.
ORIKAESHI MEI    Folded signature. Signature folded around and inlaid in 
                 a shortened NAKAGO.
O-SEPPA          Large SEPPA. TACHI-ZEPPA.
OSHIGATA         Sword rubbing. Tissue with impression of sword tang and
                 signature created by SUMI-ink rubbing.
OSHIGATA-ZUMI    Cake-ink.
OSORAKU          WAKIZASHI or TANTO with YOKOTE nearly in the middle of 
                 the blade.
O-SURIAGE        Shortened at both the MACHIs and the JIRI. Most of the
                 original tang missing. All of the original tang missing.
                 This condition reduces an otherwise applicable price by
                 half. With some traders, by half again.
O-TACHI          Large TACHI.  ODACHI.
O-WAKIZASHI      Large or extra long WAKIZASHI.
OYOROI           The great armor of Heian, Kamakura, Nambokucho periods.
RIN-ZORI         "Ring-shaped" curve.
RYO              Two, double or double sided.
RYOBA            Double-edged. Cutting edge extends down the back some 
                 distance.
RYO-HITSU        Both Ana of a Tsuba.
RYO-JIRI         The two SHINOGI-JI surfaces that border a groove. RYO 
                 means "two", KATA means "one" and refers to a single 
                 surface on the edge of a groove.
RYU              Dragon.
SADAHA           Repeating patterns on a blade.
SAGE-O           Cord used for tying the KIMONO sleeves or as a weapon,
                 normally found looped through the KURIKATA.
SAGURI           Catch-hook on SAYA. Slips under the edge of the OBI, 
                 securing the scabbard when worn.
SAIDAN           "Cutting." Term to denotes cutting test. 
SAIHATO          Retempered sword. Sword with a retempered edge.
SAIJIN           Retempered sword.
SAI-JO           SAI-JO SAKU. See JAPANESE VALUE SYSTEM.
SAKA             "Slanting."  Term used with HAMON descriptions.
SAKI             "Tip." Point.
SAKI-HABA        Blade width at YOKOTE.
SAKIZORI         Curve at the MONOUCHI or first third of blade.
SAKON SHOGEN     The Imperial Guard has two wings, SAKON-E and UKON-E. 
                 SHOGEN is officer rank.
SAKU             "Made." "Made by - " Manufacture.
SAME             Skin from the belly of a Manta Ray used for sword handles.
SAMONJI          Reversed writing. Reversed signature. Also a name of O-SA
                 "Great SA" CHIKUZEN swordsmith of the "10 Students." SA
                 School Founder.
SAMURAI          Warrior or warrior class. BUSHI or BUSHI class.
SANBONSUGI       "Three-cedar" HAMON pattern.
SANKO TSUKA KEN  HORIMONO carving of KEN sword with Vajra handle.
SAN-MAI          Three-piece sword construction.
SASAHO-YARI      Bamboo-leaf Yari. Leaf-shaped blade.
SAYA             Sword scabbard.
SAYAGAKI         Written attribution on a plain wood scabbard.
SAYAGUCHI        Mouth of the scabbard.
SEIBATSU         Armed siege.
SEKI             Also called MACHI, notches at top of NAKAGO.
SEKI-GANE        Soft metal plugs. Soft-metal plugs in Tsuba to fit sword. 
SENGOKU          Hundred Year War. Time of battles. 1490 to 1600.
SEPPA            "Pressure wings." Washer-like separators found on either
                 side of the TSUBA.
SEPPA-DAI        Area of Tsuba against which, Seppa rest. Seppa platform.
SEPPUKU          SETSU and FUKU together here become - "Resolve." 
SESSHO           Regent. A minister of affairs who governs.
SHAKU            Japanese unit of measure similarly near, but not the same
                 as, one foot.
SHAKUDO          Copper mixed with gold. Naturally formed ingots that 
                 were originally found on the ground, have arsenic on 
                 the surface. This, mixed with gold and copper allows 
                 the famous patina of browns, blacks, greens and 
                 purples used so effectively in soft metal fittings.
SHI              Man or person. Used to denote teacher or master.
SHIBUICHI        Copper and silver mixed. 4to1 ratio, copper to silver.
SHIKKEN          Military Regency. Governmental ruler, as "HOJO Regency."
SHIKOMI-ZUE      Sword cane.
SHINAI           Bamboo multi-lath sword. KENDO Sword.
SHINCHU          Brass.
SHINnoMUNE       Same as MITSU-MUNE - Three-sided.
SHINOGI          Ridgelines on a "fighting sword."
SHINOGI-HIKUSHI  Low SHINOGI.
SHINOGI-JI       Plane between the MUNE and SHINOGI ridge.
SHINOGI-TAKA     Also SHINOGI-TAKAKU, raised SHINOGI.
SHINOGI-TSUKURI  Sword with SHINOGI ridges.
SHIN-SHINTO      "New-New Sword." 1781 to 1868. The wearing of swords 
                 outlawed in 1876.
SHINTO           "New Sword."  1596 to 1781.
SHIRA or SHIRO   "White." Can be used to describe steel color.
SHIRA-KE         "White-spirit." 
SHIRA-KERU       "White cloak." Can be a specific steel color. Misty or 
                 hazy white. Turbid-white.
SHIRA-SAYA       Plain wood scabbard.
SHITODOME        Small collets that fit into the KURIKATA.
SHOBU            "Iris Leaf." A blade style where the SHINOGI flows 
                 directly to the point with no YOKOTE.
SHOGEN GOBAN     The ICHIMONJI group of 1208 (SHO-GEN 1207 time period).
SHO-GUN          "Supreme Military Commander," or General.
SHO-SHIN         Correct signature. Perfectly correct signature.
SHOTO            "Short Sword" (Goes with DAITO for DAI-SHO).
SHO-WA           SHO-WA period, 1926. Reign of Emperor HIROHITO. HEI-SEI
                 follows.
SHOWATO          When so referred, a sword made during the reign of 
                 Emperor HIROHITO. Modern sword.
SORI             Curve of a sword.
SORI-ASAI        Sori-Hikui - Shallow curve.
SORI-FUKAI       Deep curve.
SOTOBA           Buddhist prayer tablet or stupa-shaped NAKAGO.
SUDARE           "Bamboo blind" HAMON pattern.
SUE              The "end." A prefix meaning later.
SUGATA           Style of the body of a sword. Sword shape.
SUGUHA           Straight temper line.
SU-KEN           Simple line carvings depicting a sword.
SU-YARI          Double edged Yari.
SUMI             Japanese ink or ink art.
SUMI-HADA        Grain areas where carbon remains in the steel creating
                 small, some times circular black lines.
SUN              Japanese measure, somewhat similar to an inch.
SUNAGASHI        "Waves in the Sand."  Parallel lines  (usually NIE) in 
                 and through the HAMON.
SUNNOBI-TSUKURI  "Stretched" Tanto, Elongated tanto form from the Oei Period.
SURIAGE          A shortened tang.
TACHI            Long sword. Sword worn cutting-edge down.
TACHI-MEI        Signature on NAKAGO facing away from the body when worn
                 cutting-edge down.
TAGANE           Chisel or chisel-marks.
TAI-SHO          TAI-SHO period, 1912. Previous to SHO-WA 1926.
TAKA-DOTTE MIMI  Raised Tsuba rim.
TAKANOHA         "Falcon feathers." May be HAMON but most often a pattern 
                 of YASURI (file marks).
TAKENOKO         "Bamboo-sprout" SUGATA. Mostly TANTO.
TAMA             Round "Crystal-ball" appearing next to HAMON.
TAMABA           Ball YAKIBA patterns appearing on or within the HAMON.
                 "Pearls in an oyster."
TAMA-GAKI        "String of beads" or "String of pearls" pattern. 
TAMESHIGIRI      Cutting test.
TAMESHI MEI      Test inscription.
TANAGO           Fish in SAGAMI Province used as model for the shape of 
                 the SOSHU NAKAGO - the TANAGO-BARA.
TANAGO-BARA      See above.
TANSU            Chest. Chest of Drawers. Drawer-handles. 
TANTO            Dagger. Less than one SHAKU (12").
TATE             "Standing." Standing HADA, standing UTSURI, etc.
TEKKOTSU         Metal particles in Tsuba.
TENKA GOKEN      "The Five Great Swords." See GOMEIKEN.
TO               Sword.
TOBI             YAKIBA form seen as if jumping or darting up into the JI
                 from the HAMON. Island or spot-like shapes in the JI.
TOGARI           Pointed. Pointed shapes.
TOGI             Polish or polishing.
TOGI-MEI         Polishers' signature (found in the SHINOGI-JI just above 
                 the MACHI and on the point).
TORAN            "High Waves" HAMON pattern.
TORIIZORI        Sword curve like a TORII Gate - even curve. Also called
                 KYOZORI - a reference to KYOTO and the Emperor which has 
                 its roots with AMATERASU and the TORII Gate.
TSUBA            Sword guard.
TSUCHI           Sword tool.
TSUCHIME         Hammer-marks, Pattern of hammer, hammered pattern.
TSUKA            Sword handle.
TSUKA-BUKURO     Cover for sword handle.
TSUKA-GUCHI      Mouth of handle.
TSUKA-ITO        Handle wrapping or tape.
TSUKURI          Shape or body-style of a sword. 
TSUKURU          Made by or produced by.
TSUNAGI          Wooden or bamboo sword meant as a manikin for mountings.
TSURUGI          KEN sword. Old double edged, straight sword.
TSUYO            "Strong." Strongly done, strongly phrased.
TSUYU            "Dew-drops." A term of beauty for abundant or fine NIE.
UBU              "Original." Usually applied to the condition of the NAKAGO.
                 UBU allows maximum trade value.
UBU NAKAGO       Sword tang in original condition (not altered).
UCHIGATANA       Long sword mounted with TSUBA (guard).
UCHIKAESHI-MIMI  Beveled or alternating, waverly pattern Tsuba rim.
UCHIKO           Finely filtered whetstone powder gathered in a dauber. For
                 use in sword care.
UCHIKOMI         A cut injury to the steel from a sword strike.
UCHINOKE         "Thrown in the Air." Specific curved HAMON figures.
                 Shapes likened to the new moon.
UCHIZORI         Inward curve. Curved toward the HA. MUNE curved toward the
                 point.
UMABARI          Horse needle.
UMA-HA           Horse teeth HAMON pattern.
UMA-MIDARE       Uneven or irregular horse teeth HAMON pattern.
UMEGANE          Plugged or otherwise repaired KIZU.
U-no-KUBI        U-no-KUBI-TSUKURI. Cormorant's head - SUGATA.
URA              Side of the NAKAGO facing toward the body when worn. 
                 Reverse side from that of the OMOTE.
URA-MEI          "Signed on the URA." URA is usually the date. 
UTSURI           "Reflections."  Sometimes called "ghost temper" or 
                 reflections of the HAMON. Temper-mark caused by 
                 temperature differentials at the quench.
UZU              Whirlpool grain. Excited grain.
UZUMAKI          Whirlpool HADA. Swirling grain.
URUOI            Lustrous.
WAKIZASHI        Companion Sword. Blade length between one and two 
                 SHAKU (12 and 24 inches). 
WARE             Crack. Used to describe "open grain" or "tired steel."
WARI-BARI        Chop-sticks for sword mountings.
YA-HAZU          "Of an arrow." Description of HAMON.Shapes of an arrow.
                 Feathers of an arrow.
YAKIBA           "Fired edge." Area of hardened steel on the cutting edge.
                 The YAKIBA is outlined by HAMON.
YAKIDASHI        "Beginning YAKIBA." Area of YAKIBA just above the HA-MACHI.
                 Shape of the HAMON just above the HA-MACHI. Often used to
                 refer to the shape of a SUGU YAKIDASHI when appraising
                 SHINTO.
YAKIHABA         Width of YAKIBA.
YAKIOTOSHI       Hamon drops off the edge a sort distance from the HA-MACHI. 
                 The cause is said to be the result of where a sword was not 
                 pushed into the coals and was therefore not hot during the 
                 quench. It is an expected and normal feature on many of the 
                 oldest swords.
YAKITE-KUSARASHI Coloring metals.
YA-no-NE         "Arrow end." Arrow-head HAMON. Forged arrows.
YARI             Spear. Various shapes. Usually straight, double-edged with
                 triangular cross-section.
YASURI           File marks.
YASURIME         Signature of the files marks - the style of file marks.
YO               "Leaves." Dot-shaped NIOI pattern in YAKIBA.
YOKOTE           "At the Side." Line separating the JI from the KISSAKI.
YOROIDOSHI       Armor piercer (TANTO).
YOSHINO          YOSHINO Mountains in YAMATO.
YOSHINO Period   GODAIGO-SAMA fled to the YOSHINO Mountains from where he
                 conducted his rebellion against the HOJO and later, the
                 ASHIKAGA. Short name for the Southern Court. Period 
                 between 1336 and 1393. 
YUBASHIRI        This term has been used to describe small YAKIBA shapes 
                 in the JI. The translation is, "running or boiling water."
                 These forms may appear as swirling, drawn out, or 
                 island-like cloud wisps. YUBASHIRI also refers to a 
                 running or swirling form of HADA.
ZAI-MEI          Inscription - the opposite of MU-MEI.
ZOKUMYO          The character-group of a first or personal name within a 
                 signature. A signifier of superior quality in SUE-BIZEN. 
                 A sword with a personal name in the MEI.
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